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Lucene五分钟教程

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Lucene大大简化了在应用中集成全文搜索的功能。但实际上Lucene十分简单,我可以在五分钟之内向你展示如何使用Lucene

1. 建立索引

为了简单起见,我们下面为一些字符串创建内存索引:

StandardAnalyzer analyzer = new StandardAnalyzer(Version.LUCENE_40);
Directory index = new RAMDirectory();
 
IndexWriterConfig config = new IndexWriterConfig(Version.LUCENE_40, analyzer);
 
IndexWriter w = new IndexWriter(index, config);
addDoc(w, "Lucene in Action", "193398817");
addDoc(w, "Lucene for Dummies", "55320055Z");
addDoc(w, "Managing Gigabytes", "55063554A");
addDoc(w, "The Art of Computer Science", "9900333X");
w.close();

addDoc()方法把文档(译者注:这里的文档是Lucene中的Document类的实例)添加到索引中。

private static void addDoc(IndexWriter w, String title, String isbn) throws IOException {
  Document doc = new Document();
  doc.add(new TextField("title", title, Field.Store.YES));
  doc.add(new StringField("isbn", isbn, Field.Store.YES));
  w.addDocument(doc);
}

注意,对于需要分词的内容我们使用TextField,对于像id这样不需要分词的内容我们使用StringField。

2.搜索请求

我们从标准输入(stdin)中读入搜索请求,然后对它进行解析,最后创建一个Lucene中的Query对象。

String querystr = args.length > 0 ? args[0] : "lucene";
Query q = new QueryParser(Version.LUCENE_40, "title", analyzer).parse(querystr);

3.搜索

我们创建一个Searcher对象并且使用上面创建的Query对象来进行搜索,匹配到的前10个结果封装在TopScoreDocCollector对象里返回。

int hitsPerPage = 10;
IndexReader reader = IndexReader.open(index);
IndexSearcher searcher = new IndexSearcher(reader);
TopScoreDocCollector collector = TopScoreDocCollector.create(hitsPerPage, true);
searcher.search(q, collector);
ScoreDoc[] hits = collector.topDocs().scoreDocs;

4.展示

现在我们得到了搜索结果,我们需要想用户展示它。

System.out.println("Found " + hits.length + " hits.");
for(int i=0;i<hits.length;++i) {
    int docId = hits[i].doc;
    Document d = searcher.doc(docId);
    System.out.println((i + 1) + ". " + d.get("isbn") + "\t" + d.get("title"));
}

这里是这个小应用的完整代码

import org.apache.lucene.analysis.standard.StandardAnalyzer;
import org.apache.lucene.document.Document;
import org.apache.lucene.document.Field;
import org.apache.lucene.document.StringField;
import org.apache.lucene.document.TextField;
import org.apache.lucene.index.DirectoryReader;
import org.apache.lucene.index.IndexReader;
import org.apache.lucene.index.IndexWriter;
import org.apache.lucene.index.IndexWriterConfig;
import org.apache.lucene.queryparser.classic.ParseException;
import org.apache.lucene.queryparser.classic.QueryParser;
import org.apache.lucene.search.IndexSearcher;
import org.apache.lucene.search.Query;
import org.apache.lucene.search.ScoreDoc;
import org.apache.lucene.search.TopScoreDocCollector;
import org.apache.lucene.store.Directory;
import org.apache.lucene.store.RAMDirectory;
import org.apache.lucene.util.Version;
 
import java.io.IOException;
 
public class HelloLucene {
  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException, ParseException {
    // 0. Specify the analyzer for tokenizing text.
    //    The same analyzer should be used for indexing and searching
    StandardAnalyzer analyzer = new StandardAnalyzer(Version.LUCENE_40);
 
    // 1. create the index
    Directory index = new RAMDirectory();
 
    IndexWriterConfig config = new IndexWriterConfig(Version.LUCENE_40, analyzer);
 
    IndexWriter w = new IndexWriter(index, config);
    addDoc(w, "Lucene in Action", "193398817");
    addDoc(w, "Lucene for Dummies", "55320055Z");
    addDoc(w, "Managing Gigabytes", "55063554A");
    addDoc(w, "The Art of Computer Science", "9900333X");
    w.close();
 
    // 2. query
    String querystr = args.length > 0 ? args[0] : "lucene";
 
    // the "title" arg specifies the default field to use
    // when no field is explicitly specified in the query.
    Query q = new QueryParser(Version.LUCENE_40, "title", analyzer).parse(querystr);
 
    // 3. search
    int hitsPerPage = 10;
    IndexReader reader = DirectoryReader.open(index);
    IndexSearcher searcher = new IndexSearcher(reader);
    TopScoreDocCollector collector = TopScoreDocCollector.create(hitsPerPage, true);
    searcher.search(q, collector);
    ScoreDoc[] hits = collector.topDocs().scoreDocs;
     
    // 4. display results
    System.out.println("Found " + hits.length + " hits.");
    for(int i=0;i<hits.length;++i) {
      int docId = hits[i].doc;
      Document d = searcher.doc(docId);
      System.out.println((i + 1) + ". " + d.get("isbn") + "\t" + d.get("title"));
    }
 
    // reader can only be closed when there
    // is no need to access the documents any more.
    reader.close();
  }
 
  private static void addDoc(IndexWriter w, String title, String isbn) throws IOException {
    Document doc = new Document();
    doc.add(new TextField("title", title, Field.Store.YES));
 
    // use a string field for isbn because we don't want it tokenized
    doc.add(new StringField("isbn", isbn, Field.Store.YES));
    w.addDocument(doc);
  }
}

原文链接: lucenetutorial

本文固定链接: http://www.csyor.com/970.html - 穿梭于偶然

该日志由 Csyor 于2014年08月10日发表在 Java教程 分类下, 通告目前不可用,你可以至底部留下评论。
原创文章转载请注明: Lucene五分钟教程 - 穿梭于偶然
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